acinmeaningdefinitionrelatedlink
2FA
Two-Factor AuthenticationA security system that requires a user to log in using two different methods - for example, a password and code sent by text to a mobile.
AC
Alternating CurrentAn electric current that reverses its direction many times a second at regular intervals.DC
ACL
Access-Control ListPart of a computer file system, an ACL is a list of permissions attached to an object.
ADAS
Advanced Driver Assistance SystemAn AI-based system to help drivers and improve safety. Examples include lane departure warning systems.AV; AI
ADC
Analogue-to-Digital ConverterAn electronic circuit or IC that converts an analogue signal into a digital one.DAC
ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber LineA device that allows faster communications than a standard DSL modem.DSL
AEL
All Electric AircraftAn aircraft that use electric actuation throughout.MEA
AFM
Atomic Force MicroscopyTechnique allowing a microscope to image almost any type of surface.STM
AGP
Aerospace Growth PartnershipStrategic partnership between government and industry, established to secure the UK aerospace industry for the future.DGP
AGP
Accelerated Graphics PortA video interface introduced in 1996 that has now been replaced by other solutions.
AGV
Automated Guided VehiclesVehicles that follows markers on (or wires in) the floor, or uses an embedded vision (EV) system for navigation.AMR; AV; AI; EV
AI
Artificial IntelligenceIntelligent machines capable of imitating human behaviour.ANN; LNN; ML; MI; DNN
AIM
Asset Information ManagementThe process of managing the datasheets or information of a product.ALM; PLM
ALD
Atomic Layer DepositionMethod of depositing a source material as a coating onto a target material.ALE; CVD; PVD
ALM
Asset Lifecycle ManagementThe process of managing the full lifespan of a product.AIM; PLM
ALE
Atomic Layer EtchingTechnique in semiconductor manufacturing where individual atomic layers are removed from a target material.ALD; CVD; PVD
ALU
Arithmetic Logic UnitPart of a CPU. As the name suggests, the ALU performs arithmetic and logic operations.CPU; MCU
AM
Amplitude ModulationModulation technique used in electronic communication, commonly for transmitting via a radio wave.FM; PM; RF
AMR
Autonomous Mobile RobotsRobot that performs tasks with a high degree of autonomy.AI; AV; AGV
ANN
Artificial Neural NetworkAlgorithms modelled from the brains of animals designed to learn by example without being programmed with rules. LNN; AI; ML; MI; DNN
APM
Asset Performance ManagementAn approach to maximising the efficacy of a system by reducing unplanned downtime and decreasing maintenance costs.
APT
Advanced Persistent ThreatA high-level, sophisticated security attack done on high-profile targets that would have advanced cyber security measures.
APU
Auxiliary Power UnitA power supply on a vehicle (e.g. aircraft or military land vehicle) for providing energy for non-propulsional functions
AQL
Acceptable Quality LevelThe minimum level of quality required from a product.
AR
Augmented RealityInteractive experience where the real world is augmented by interactive, computer-generated imagesVR
AV
Autonomous VehiclesSelf-driving or driverless car.AI; ADAS
AVL
Approved Vendor ListA log of the suppliers and providers that meet a company's standards and approvals.
B2B
Business to BusinessA form of transaction between two businesses, as opposed between a business and a consumer.B2C
B2C
Business to ConsumerA form of transaction between a business and a consumer, as opposed to between two businesses.B2B
BEIS
Business, Energy and Industrial StrategyA UK governmental ministerial department, supported by 41 agencies and public bodies.DGP
BGA
Ball Grid ArrayA type of surface-mount packaging used for integrated circuits.
BPM
Business Process ManagementThe process of optimising how a company carries out its operations.
C4ISR
Command Control Communications, Computers and Intelligence, Surveillance and ReconnaissanceRefers to systems, procedures and techniques used to collect and disseminate information.
CA
Corrosion AllowanceThe amount of material in a vessel that can be corroded without affecting the pressure containing integrity.
CAD
Computer-Aided DesignThe use of computers to aid in the creation, and development of designs. It can be and is often used alongside CAM.CAM; CAE
CAE
Computer-Aided EngineeringComputer software used to aid in engineering tasks.CAD; CAM
CAM
Computer-Aided ManufactureThe use of computers to aid in the control of tools for manufacture. It can be and is often used alongside CAD.CAD; CAE
CCTV
Closed-Circuit TelevisionForm of surveillance technology.
CD
Compact DiscAn optical media disc used to store music and data. Though it has mostly been replaced by cloud storage and smaller, reusable memory solutions, the CD is still used to transfer software and carry music and videos.DVD
CEM
Contract Electronics ManufacturerCompanies that design, manufacture, test, distribute, and provide return/repair services forelectronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers
CEO
Chief Executive OfficerThe most senior executive within a companyCFO; CPO
CFO
Chief Financial OfficerThe person responsible for managing a company's financial planning, financial risk management etc.CEO; CPO
CIK
Cryptographic Ignition KeysA removable storage device token shaped like a key to provide intuitive storage and transfer of data.
CIPS
Chartered Institute of Procurement & SupplyProfessional body working with purchasing and supply professions promoting good practice and service.
CMC
Calibration and Measurement CapabilityThe best achievable measurement 'uncertainty' of an almost ideal measurement instrument under normal operational conditions.
CMOS
Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductorThe semiconductor technology used in the transistors that are manufactured into most of today's digital intergated circuits.
CMS
Content Management SystemA way of managing, organising and storing the creation and modification of digital content, that can be accessed by multiple people.
CMYK
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and blacKThe four colours of ink used in printers. Images should use the CMYK colour profile rather than RGB if the images are going to be printed.RGB
CNC
Computer Numerical ControlAutomated control of machine tools like drills and lathes using a computerCAM; CAE
CND
Computer Network DefenseMethods of protecting whole networks against cyber attacks. Differs from general cyber security measures in that it must protect the network, rather than individual systems.
CoAP
Constrained Application ProtocolSpecialised Internet Application Protocol for constrained devices.IP; TCP/IP; VOIP
COTS
Commercial Off-The-ShelfA product that is sold without customisation to a mass-market.
CPO
Chief Procurement OfficerThe head of a company's procurement department who oversees the acquisition of products and servicesCEO; CFO
CPU
Central Processing UnitA chip that carries out instructions from a program by perfoming basic arithmetic, logic, and I/O operations.ALU; MCU
CSA
Chemical Safety AssessmentA process to create report on the properties of hazardous materials.
CTE
Coefficient of Thermal ExpansionDescribes how the size of an object changes as a result of temperature change.
CTO
Configure-to-OrderThe option of allowing a buyer to choose the features or parameters of a product from available choices to meet their own specifications.ETO
CVD
Chemical Vapour DepositionMethod for depositing solid materials as vapours through the use of volatile chemicals.ALD; ALE; PVD
DAC
Digital-to-Analogue ConverterA system that converts a digital signal into an analogue one. Normally implemented as integrated circuits.ADC
DC
Direct CurrentAn electric current flowing in one direction only.AC
DDoS
Distributed Denial of ServiceA large-scale DoS attack that originates from multiple sources.DoS
DGP
Defence Growth PartnershipA partnership between Government and the Defence Industry jointly led by the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) and the Defence Industry, with the support of the MOD as the UK customer.AGP; BEIS; MOD
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration ProtocolA network management protocol where the server assigns an IP address to each device on the network.
DNN
Deep Neural NetworkArtificial neural network with multiple layers between the input and output layers.ANN; LNN; AI, ML; MI
DNS
Domain Name SystemA 'phone book' of the internet that translates the name of the website you're entering into the address of the website.
DoS
Denial of ServiceA cyber attack where the attacker disables a machine or network resource to users, normally achieved by overloading systems with superfluous requests.DDoS
DSL
Digital Subscriber LineA type of modem used to connect a computer or network to a telephone line to access the internet.ADSL
DVD
Digital Versatile DiscAn optical media disc used to store videos and other data. It is generally the same as a CD but has a much larger storage capacity.CD
EEPROM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only MemoryA type of non-volatile memory (NVM). Written to electrically, after which erasure is possible (electrically) in bytes. Flash memory is a type of EEPROM but is erased electrically in blocks.NVM; PROM; EPROM; RAM; ROM
EGR
Exhaust Gas RecirculationUsed in internal combustion engines, EGR is used to reduce emissions by recirculating exhaust gas into engine cylinders.
EMC
Electomagnetic CompatibilityThe concept of enabling different electronic devices to operate when in close proximity to each other without electromatic interference (EMI)EMI; EMR
EMEA
Europe, the Middle East and AfricaAcronym used in business, especially with regards to distribution.
EMI
Electomagnetic InterferenceUnwanted signals that interfere with devices, normally coming from other nearby electronics circuits. Also sometimes naturally occuring.EMR; EMC
EMR
Electromagnetic RadiationUbiquitous form of energy that includes forms of light such as visible light, infrared and UV.
EOL
End of LineA control character in encoding that signifies the end of a line of text.
EOS
End of SaleDescribes the timeframe in which a distributor stops selling a product.
EPC
Energy Performance CertificateRating scheme to summarise the energy efficiency of buildings in the EU.
ERP
Enterprise Resource PlanningThe integrated management of core business processes, often in real-time and mediated by software and technology.
ESN
Enterprise Social NetworkingNetworking a company might do with internal social media platforms. It will be used by the company's staff, vendors, partners and customers.
ETO
Engineer-to-OrderThe option of allowing a buyer to define features or parameters of a product to meet their custom specifications.CTO
EV
Electric VehicleA vehicle that uses an electric motor for some or all of its propulsion.PHEV
EV
Embedded VisionThe integration of vision into machines that use algorithms to deduce meanings from observing pixel patterns in video (or stills). EV is commonly used in 'edge processing'
FA
Failure AnalysisThe process of analysing processes to troubleshoot problems.
FDD
Floppy Disk DriveA now obsolete removable memory technology that preceeded CD and flash memory and was ubiquitous for carrying what we now see as very small files.CD
FET
Field-Effect TransistorAn electronic device which uses an electric field to control the flow of current.MOS
FM
Frequency ModulationEncoding of information in a radio wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.AM; PM; RF
FoI
Freedom of InformationGives public access to information held by public authorities
FoV
Field of ViewExtent of the environment observable by human eyes.
GMP
Good Manufacturing PracticePractices required to conform to guidelines recommended by agencies that control the manufacture and sale of products including foods and pharmaceuticals. QMS
GPS
Global Positioning SystemGlobal public service by the US Government. Provides navigational and geographic positioning service.
GUI
Graphical User InterfaceUser interface that allows the interaction with electronic devices through graphical icons.UI; HMI
HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Control Critical PointsFood safety approach for reducing biological, chemical and physical hazards in production processes.
HF
High FrequencyRadio frequencies in the range of 3 to 30 MHz. VLF, LF, RF, VHF
HMI
Human-Machine InterfaceUser interface that allows the interaction between humans and machines, systems or devices.GUI; UI
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer ProtocolA protocol used by the World Wide Web that defines how web browsers should respond to commands. HTTPS; IP; WWW
HTTPS
HyperText Transfer Protocol SecureExtension of HTTP used for secure communication over a network. The protocol is encrypted using TLSHTTP; TLS; IP
HUD
Head Up DisplayA transparent or small display that shows users information without them having to look elsewhere.
ID
IdentificationRecognised proof of a required piece of information.
IP
Internet ProtocolSet of rules governing the format of data sent over the internet or to another network.CoAP; TCP/IP; VOIP
IPC
Inter-Process CommunicationMechanism where the operating system (OS) allows system processes to communicate with each other.OS
JFET
Junction Gate Field-Effect TransistorSemiconductor device controlled by voltage with three terminals.MOSFET
JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts GroupA type of image file commonly used because they have a small file size. The initialism describes the group that created the standard.
LAN
Local Area NetworkGroup of computers or devices connected to a single server, normally in the same building or small geographic region.PAN; WAN; LPWAN
LCD
Liquid Crystal DisplayA flat-panel optical display that uses the light-modulation of liquid crystals to create images.LED
LED
Light-Emitting DiodeA semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it.LCD
LF
Low FrequencyRadio frequencies in the range of 30 kHz to 300 kHz. VLF, RF, HF
LNN
Learning Neural NetworksAlgorithms modelled from the human brain that are intended to replicate natural intelligence by recognising patterns in data.ML; ANN; AI; MI
LOC
Lines of CodeA measure of the size of a computer program.
LPWAN
Low-Power Wide Area NetworkNetwork that connects multiple computers or devices from a wide area at a low bit rate, allowing low power.WAN; LAN; PAN
MCU
MicrocontrollerSmall computer on a single integrated circuit. Contains one or more CPUs. Used in embedded systemsALU; CPU
MEA
More Electric AircraftAn aircraft that use electric actuation in systems that would have traditionally used hydraulics or pneumatics.AEA
MI
Machine IntelligenceAnother name for artificial intelligence.ANN; LNN; AI; ML; DNN
ML
Machine LearningAllows computer systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from its own experience and without being explicitly programmed.ANN; LNN; AI; MI; DNN
MMC
MultiMediaCardRemoveable memory device that preceded Standard Digital (SD)SD
MOD
Ministry of DefenceUK government department responsible for designing and implementing the UK's defence specifications and plans.
MOS
Metal-Oxide SemiconductorType of transistor used as a gate.FET
MOSFET
Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect TransistorA common transistor that can be used in both analogue and digital circuits.JFET
NVM
Non-Volatile MemoryA menory technology which, unlike RAM, once written to retains its data if power is removed. ROM; PROM; EPROM; EEPROM; RAM
OS
Operating SystemPlatform for communication between hardware and software which makes up the user-interface for computer operators. For example, Windows is an operating system.BIOS; IPC; RTOS
OSVVM
Open Source VHDL Verification MethodologyA methodology and library of verification components that simplify the verification of a chip (IC) design. https://osvvm.org/ OVM; UVM; VMMhttps://osvvm.org/
OVM
Open Verification MethodologyAn open source verification methodology resource that provides a framework for reusable verification tests.OSVVM; UVM; VMM
P2P
Peer-to-peerComputer networking where an application shares workloads between peers.
PAN
Personal Area NetworkComputer network for connecting devices on one individual workspace.LAN; WAN
PAT
Portable Appliance TestStandard for checking the safety of electronic devices.
PC
Personal ComputerA term used to describe a traditional desktop computer rather than a laptop, however it now commonly refers to computers using Microsoft Windows.
PCB
Printed Circuit BoardUsed in almost all electronic products, PCBs support and connect electronic components together in electronic systems including computers.
PCM
Pulse-Code ModulationA method used to digitally represent sampled analogue signals. It is used for digital audio in computers.
PDA
Personal Digital AssistantA small, electronic device popular before smartphones that contained calendars and the facility for making notes.
PDF
Portable Document FormatFile format used to present documents that include documents and images designed to be viewable universally,
PHEV
Plug-in Hybrid Electric VehicleA vehicle that uses an electric motor for its propulsion. Its batteries are charged though a cable or from a combustion engine.EV
PIM
Product Information ManagementProcess for handling data, content and other materials used to market a product.AIM; ALM
PLM
Product Lifecycle ManagementProcess of managing the lifecycle of a product from inception to engineering design and manufacture, to disposal of products.AIM; ALM
PM
Phase ModulationModulation technique for conditioning communication signals for transmission.FM; AM; RF
PoE
Power over EthernetAllowing the supply of power to a device through an ethernet connection.
POP
Post Office ProtocolA standard internet protocol used by email clients to retrieve mail from a server.IMAP
PPE
Personal Protection EquipmentEquipment designed to protect user against health and safety risks at work. For example high-visibility clothing and safety goggles.
PPI
Pixels Per InchA measure for the density of pixels (resolution) of an electronic screen. It can also describe the resolution of an image file.
PROM
Programmable Read Only MemoryA type of non-volatile memory (NVM). Written electrically, after which erasure is not possible.NVM; EPROM; EEPROM; RAM; ROM
PV
Process VariableThe measured value of a particular part of a process being monitored or controlled.
PVD
Physical Vapour DepositionA variey of methods for vacuum coatings.ALD; ALE; CVD
QA
Quality AssuranceProcess of checking products for potential defects or mistakes before their distribution to customersQC
QC
Quality ControlProcess of reviewing all factors in production of product for quality.QA
QM
Quality ManagementThe process of ensuring the quality of a product during its manufacture. QMS; QA; QC
QMS
Quality Management SystemA collection of business practices that endevours to meet customer requirements and increase their satisfactionGMP
QoS
Quality of ServiceA measure for the performance of a service such as a computer network.
R&D
Research and DevelopmentInnovative conception and development of new products and services.
RF
Radio FrequencyFrequencies within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation.RFI; RFID; HF; LF; VLF; VHF
RFI
Radio-Frequency InterferenceA specialised microprocessor that is optimised for the processing of digital signals.RF; RFID; EMI
RFID
Radio Frequency IdentificationTechnology that uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically-stored information. Used in key fobs and smart cards.RF; RFI
RGB
Red-Green-BlueThe three main colours used to make up colour on electronic devices such as displays and multi-LED clustersCMYK
RO
Reverse OsmosisWater purification technology that removes ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
ROM
Read Only MemoryA type of non-volatile memory (NVM). Written to using masks, after which erasure is not possible.NVM; PROM; EPROM; EEPROM; RAM
RTOS
Real-Time Operating SystemAn operating system (OS) that processes data and supports applications in real time.OS
SD
Secure DigitalForm of removable storage device with the form factor of a small card, standardised by the Secure Digital Association (SDA)SDA; USB
SDA
Secure Digital AssociationOrganisation which sets standards for Secure Digital (SD) removeable memory cards.SD; USB
SIL
Safety Integrity LevelRisk reduction level provided by a safety function, or to specify a target level of risk reduction.RMS
SPI
Serial Peripheral InterfaceAn interface which connects microcontrollers with peripheral ICs.
SSL
Secure Sockets LayerA protocol that allows the secure transfer of documents over a network. It uses Transport Control Protocol (TCP) for communication. TCP
STM
Scanning Tunneling MicroscopyAllows a microscope to observe a surface at the atomic level.AFM
TCP
Transport Layer SecurityA protocol that allows the transfer of documents between hosts communicating via an IP network.TCP/IP; IP; TLS; SSL
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Intenet ProtocolSuite of communication protocols used to interconnect devices on the internet.TCP; IP; CoAP; VOIP
TLS
Transport Layer SecurityEncryption protocol that protects data while it is moving between computers.HTTPS
UI
User InterfaceSpace where interactions between humans and systems occur. For example, a smartphone screen.OS; HMI; GUI; UX
USB
Universal Serial BusIndustry standard computer and device connection adopted by a large amount of devices.SD
UVM
Universal Verification MethodologyAn open source software method for verifying integrated circuit designs.OSVVM; OVM; VMM
VCS
Version Control SystemSystem for managing documents which may have multiple versions that have been updated.
VCSEL
Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting LaserA semiconductor-based laser diode that radiates light vertically to the surface of a semiconductor chip.
VHF
Very High FrequencyRadio frequencies in the range of 30 to 300 MHz. HF; RF
VLF
Very Low FrequencyRadio frequencies in the range of 3 to 30 kHz corresponding to wavelengths from 100 to 10 kilometers.RF, LF
VMM
Verification Methodology ManualA set of practices for the creation of reusable verification environments in SystemVerilog.OSVVM; OVM; UVM
VOC
Volatile Organic CompoundsOrganic compounds with high vapour pressures at ordinary room temperatures.
VoIP
Voice Over Internet ProtocolTechnology for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia over Internet Protocol (IP)IP; CoAP; TCP/IP
VR
Virtual RealityTechnology enabling a user to be shown a computer-generated experience that they can interact with and be immersed in.AR
WAN
Wide Area NetworkA telecommunications or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance.LAN; WAN
WAP
Wireless Access PointAlso known as a wireless router, a WAP is a piece of hardware that allows Wi-Fi devices to connect to a wired network.
WMA
Windows Media AudioAn audio file format created by Windows.WMV
WMV
Windows Media VideoA video file format created by Windows.WMA
WWW
World Wide WebInformation system accessible over the internet. W3C
ZIP
Zigzag Inline PackageA packaging technology for integrated circuits (ICs)